Symbolic And

 Symbolic And Essay

An exec summary

to get managers and

executives are available

at the end of the article

Symbolic and functional

positioning of brands

Subodh Bhat

Associate Professor, Department of promoting, San Francisco State University, S . fransisco, California, UNITED STATES and

Srinivas K. Reddy

Professor, Office of Marketing, University of Atlanta, Athens, Georgia, USA


Positioning your brand through a obvious and consistent image-building marketing campaign has been a foundation of brand promoting practice. Entrepreneurs spend millions of dollars each year to produce and support brand pictures. Their attempts seem to forked out off, since evidenced by the enduring, well-defined, and strong images of some of the world's popular brands (e. g. Marlboro, Ivory, Pepsi). In accordance with this facts, theorists and practitioners (cf. Gardner and Levy, 1955; Park ainsi que al., 1986; Ries and Trout, 1986) have suggested that developing, communicating, and maintaining a brand's photo is crucial to its long lasting success.


Brand image important

The value of a brand's image in its long-term achievement necessitates creating a framework for strategically managing the image over the long term (Park et al., 1986). Manufacturer managers experienced very little path for establishing such a conceptual structure. One distinctive exception is brand idea management (BCM) proposed by Park et al. (1986). BCM offers that every brand image must be based on your own brand concept or possibly a brand-specific summary meaning. In its general form, a brand principle can be both symbolic or perhaps functional, and thus comprises taking care of of a brand's image. Useful brands satisfy immediate and practical needs. Symbolic brands satisfy emblematic needs including those to get self-expression and prestige, and their practical use is only circunstancial. For example , inside the category of wrist watches, the brand Casio would be regarded as a functional manufacturer since its effectiveness lies primarily in its capacity to tell time correctly. The rand name Movado, alternatively, would be regarded as a emblematic brand because it is used primarily for its status appeal, as well as its ability to tell the time is only an imprevisto reason for it is usage. Each concept is usually selected for any brand, Area et al. (1986) recommend that it must be maintained over the brand's existence for benefit of consistency.

Symbolic or perhaps functional

Even though the notion of brand concept management is intuitively appealing, the proposition that brands can be either representational or functional in their charm to buyers raises several interesting problems. The first issue is whether symbolism and functionality will be two distinct concepts or are two ends of one manufacturer concept procession. In addition to the uniqueness of these two concepts, Area et al. (1986) assume that each of these ideas is unidimensional. Whether that is certainly really therefore has not been reviewed in empirical research as of yet. Also, as far as we known, no measures or weighing machines have been created that would assess whether a particular brand is symbolic or perhaps functional. Hence, empirical research has not directly analyzed these related issues. An awareness of these kinds of issues would also be very useful to promoting managers in planning setting strategies for their particular brands. Through this exploratory examine, a set of weighing scales are designed to assess a brand's emblematic and/or useful value to consumers. At the same time, we


analyze the issue of distinctiveness and dimensionality of the two brand concepts.

Two schools of thought

Brand strategy


There exists a long traditions of exploration into individual needs and motivations. During your time on st. kitts are a large number of theories and models that explain the nature of human motivation for usage behavior, a simple typology would suggest two distinctive schools of thought. The rational institution or the " economic man” model shows that consumers are realistic and try to...

Recommendations: Aaker, G. A. (1996), Building Good Brands, The Free Press, New York, BIG APPLE.

Bettman, L. R. (1979), An Information Finalizing Theory of Consumer Choice, AddisonWesley, Reading, MA.

Dichter, E. (1960), The Technique of Desire, Doubleday, Nyc, NY.

Gardner, B. N. and Garnishment, S. L. (1955), " The product and the brand”, Harvard Business Review,

March-April, pp

Hirschman, Electronic. C. and Holbrook, Meters. B. (1982), " Hedonic consumption: emerging concepts,

methods, and propositions”, Journal of Marketing, Vol

Holbrook, M. W. (1980), " Some first notes upon research into consumer esthetics”, in

Olson, J. C

Johar, L. S. and Sirgy, Meters. J. (1991), " Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising speaks:

when and why to work with which appeal”, Journal of Advertising, Volume

Katz, D. (1960), " The useful approach to study regarding attitudes”, General public Opinion Quarterly,


Garnishment, S. M. (1959), " Symbols for sale”, Harvard Business Assessment, Vol. thirty seven, July-August,


Mittal, M. (1983), " Understanding the angles and effects of involvement inside the consumer decision

process”, petulante dissertation, School of Pittsburgh, 1982.

Mittal, B. (1988), " The role of affective decision mode in the consumer acquiring expressive

products”, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol

Mittal, B., Ratchford, B. and Prabhakar, G. (1990), " Functional and expressive qualities as

determinants of brand-attitude”, Research in Marketing, Vol

Park, C. W., Jaworski, B. T. and MacInnis, D. M. (1986), " Strategic company concept graphic

management”, Journal of Marketing, Volume

Park, C. W., Milberg, S. and Lawson, L. (1991), " Evaluation of brand extensions: the role of

product feature similarity and brand idea consistency”, Record of Buyer

Ries, A. and Bass, J. (1986), Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, McGraw-Hill, New York,


Schiffman, T. G. and Kanuk, M. L. (1994), Consumer Habit, Prentice Area, NJ.

 Essay regarding Discuss A number of the Arguments Made Against Globalization and Explain Why You Agree or perhaps Disagree with Them.

Essay regarding Discuss A number of the Arguments Made Against Globalization and Explain Why You Agree or perhaps Disagree with Them.

Globalization is the discussion of community economies to become one big economy, for the sole reason for enhancing free of charge trade, expansion and productivity and work. It stresses the neo-liberal…...

 Luxor Makeup Case Study Analysis Essay

Luxor Makeup Case Study Analysis Essay

п»ї Tanisha Williams Social Diversity Mentor Donna Trent February 18, 2012 Taking care of Age and Ability The Department of Labor estimations…...